Meta-Physics is the investigation of that which really exists. It uses the tools of rational thought and argument to come to its conclusions. It may suggest that reality lies beyond the reach of human experience; or on the other hand it may contend that reality exists solely within the objects of human experience.
Meta-Physicians usually ascribe existence to, or with hold it from, three major classes of things. The first are the physical occupants of space and time. The second are minds and their states which exist in time but not space. The third are abstract entities or universals lying outside of time and space.
Only One Existence?
Meta-Physics also debates the question of the number of real existences there actually are. It asks whether there is just one real Substance or if there are many. It also theorises about the overall structure of creation and wonders whether creation is just a mechanical system, or by exploring the causually inexplicable issue of the emergence of novelty, asks if the universe contains chance events.
Theories about Reality
A Single Existence/Substance?
The philosopher Spinoza suggested that the whole of reality is a single Substance which he called God or Nature.
Wholism accepts that the whole of reality is a single Substance and calls that single Substance the Whole. Wholists reason that the Whole is God. God is everything that every was, is, or will be, both manifested and unmanifested.
A Dual Substance?
Philosophers like Schelling and Hegel supposed that reality is spiritual, i.e. not material, and thus more God than Nature. This implies the existence of two Substances, the spiritual and the material.
Wholism supposes that God, the single Substance, manifests as five quite distinct but interpenetrating and interacting hierarchical Universes. God is thus both Spirit and Nature in One. Wholists claim that human beings experience these Universes as consciousness, spirit, soul, mind, and body.
The God of Schelling and Hegel was purged of human attributes. It was Itself not a person, although somehow it contained all the persons there are.
Wholism declares that human beings are a small part of the unfolded hierarchical creation that is God. God, therefore, contains all the persons there are, and yet is Itself not human but something far greater.
The Problem of Duality
The separation between God and Nature, or the Spiritual and Material is a problem that we invariably encounter when trying to explain existence. This is because our minds are apparently only able to perceive the universe through our physical senses, a factor which immediately raises the fundamental problem concerning the difference if any between the interpreting mind and the experiencing body. It is generally accepted by philosophers that any attitude towards this dichotomy creates major, perhaps insoluble, problems of philosophical analysis.
Wholism explains the dichotomy by accepting that consciousness, spirit, soul, mind and body are different phases of the same single eternal God Substance. They are phases of that Substance in the same manner that steam, water, and ice, whilst apparently different substances with different properties are in fact the same substance, i.e. water in its different phases.
The Mind Body Conundrum
Traditionally there have been four major attitudes to the problem of the separation between mind and body, these are known as Physical Monism, Mental Monism, Interactionism, and Psycho-physical Parallelism.
All is Physical?
Physical Monism is probably the most widely accepted attitude amongst natural scientists. It assumes that all phenomena of mind and nature can be reduced to the laws of physics and biology.
Wholism accepts the truth of Physical Monism, but suggests that it applies only to the last of the unfolded Universes of Creation, i.e. the Material Universe in which we have a physical body. It does not apply to the Universes of Consciousness, Spirit, Soul, or Mind.
All is Mental?
Mental Monism received its contemporary expression in the late 19th century from Ernst Mach. It is based on the premise that since nature cannot be known directly but only by the mediation of a human observer, nature and mind alike are defined by the kinds of observation made and the nature of the inferences drawn. These inferences can either be, that there is an external system of physical nature; or, that there is only an internal system called mind.
Wholism accepts the premise of Mental Monism with the proviso that the Material Universe, in so much that it is a different phase of the one eternal God Substance, has a real existence separate from mind.
Mental Monism holds that all is mind and that the ultimate constituents of the world are individual momentary experiences which in themselves are neither mental nor physical, but of which, differently arranged, both minds and material things are composed. In other words, the concept of Nature itself is a construct of mind that can only be known through hypothesis tested by reference to experience.
Wholism explains the individual momentary experiences described by Mental Monism by accepting that the Whole continually re-creates the five unfolded Universe of Being from moment to moment. Our existence continually flashes into and out of manifestation in much the same way that a television picture is continually re-created, or a light switch is turned on and off.
All is Physical and Mental?
Interactionism holds that there are two interacting spheres, ie mind and body. This view received its first definitive elaboration in the writings of Descartes. The issue of how the two spheres interact without each destroying the self sufficiency of the other's body of principles remains open.
Wholism accepts the existence of both mind and body and adds the existence of consciousness, spirit and soul to them. Wholism explains the interaction of all five spheres of existence by the mechanism of 'phase shift' of the single eternal God Substance.
Two Separate Realities?
Finally we have the classical doctrine of Psycho Physical Parallelism which is usually attributed to Liebniz. This view holds that physical and mental events run a parallel course without effecting each other.
Wholism also holds that mental and physical events run a parallel course but believes they interact at their phase margins and so they do in fact effect each other to some degree.
In our everyday lives the majority of us give little thought to the deeper aspects that underpin our everyday commonsense reality. Our beliefs about that commonsense reality are universally and unquestionably taken to be true in the manner in which we live our lives. Nevertheless, they often seem to conflict with the findings of philosophers and modern day quantum physicists.
A Material World
For example, we all believe that there is a material world which exists whether or not we as individuals are perceiving it. We believe that other people exist beside ourselves. We believe that the material world and its inhabitants have existed for a long time and will continue to exist. We believe that what has happened often and without exception in the past will happen again in the future, etc. Much of the progress we have made over the centuries, however, has occurred because of sceptical philosophical doubts about the reality of our commonsense belief systems.
The world we live in today is, however, vastly different from the flat earth, God centred, small village community style of world inhabited by our 10th or 12th century ancestors. Whilst not necessarily 'true reality', the acceptance of commonsense beliefs, even though they have changed over the centuries, must be regarded as the criterion of sanity.
No one can deny that our current western industrial society is founded on the concept of Materialism.
All is Matter
Materialism is a theory which suggests that everything that really exists is material in nature. This means that 'real things' occupy some volume of space at any time and usually continue in existence for some period of time. Furthermore, these 'real things' are either accessible to perception by sight and touch, or are similar in their actions to that which is so accessible.
Minds are Material
The Materialist approach denies substantial existence to minds and mental states unless they are identified with states of the brain and the nervous system. It also denies substantial existence to abstract entities or universals. Of the two, the first of these denials is the more critical and controversial, after all, you are quite sure you have a mind, aren't you?
So whilst it is generally agreed that mental states are not the same as physical events in the brain the obviously close correlation between brain and mind suggests that a state that is described as, for instance, the experience of a pain may be the same event as a physical event occurring in the brain at the same time. Materialism excludes the possibility of disembodied minds, whether of God or of the dead. There is no ghost in the Materialist machine.
Wholism accepts the truths of Materialism but suggests they apply only at the level of the Material Universe. The physical laws of Materialism do not operate in the other phases of the unfolded God Substance that are consciousness, spirit, soul, and mind. Each of these phases operates under a different set of laws.
Vitalism is a mixture of various beliefs united by the contention that living processes cannot be explained in terms of the material composition and physio-chemical performance of living bodies. It suggests there is in addition some Élan Vital or Life Force that mobilises the living biological system. Such ideas, however, fly in the face of modern biology and medicine. These owe all their great triumphs to the concept of Mechanism which insists that all vital activities can be adequately explained in terms of material composition and physio-chemical performance.
Wholism accepts the truths of both Vitalism and Mechanism. Their truths applying to different phases of the One God Substance.
Mechanism assumes that for an event to be caused its occurrence can be predicted from knowledge of previous related events together with the application of the relevant universal laws of nature. This seems very straightforward to our commonsense thinking and is the underlying assumption behind modern day classical science. Nevertheless, some philosophers have voiced the view that events should be explained in terms of the purpose which they will serve rather than in terms of some previous causation. Such a view results in the conclusion that the present is determined by the future rather than by the past. Or, alternatively, perhaps it is determined by the intention of some cause that lies outside of time.
Wholism accepts that time and space have existence in the Material Universe. Different laws, however, act in the different phases of the manifested unfolded God Substance and the unmanifested folded God Substance.
There are views that are opposed to Mechanism. These are outlined below. They include Holism, Organicism, and the biological doctrine of Emergence, as well as the dominant school of Quantum Physics called Quantum Mechanics.
Holism is a thesis that wholes, or at least some wholes, are more than the sum of their parts. It suggests that the wholes in question have characteristics that cannot be explained in terms of the properties of, and the relationship to one another of, the parts of the whole. There is something additional involved.
Wholism accepts the thesis of Holism and explains it by using the concept of the hierarchical nature of existence. Since the only real Whole is God. Everything else is a quasi autonomous sub whole of God. Wholism calls these sub wholes wholons. The hierarchy they form is known as the Wholarchy. Every wholon is an apparent whole at its own level in the Wholarchy, however, it forms part of another larger wholon on the level above it and is itself built from sub wholons on the level below it.
Organicism, which is a particular version of Holism, is founded on the analogy of complex systems in general, with those that are literally organisms. Now an organism's parts lose their nature, function, significance, and even existence when removed from their organic interconnection with the rest of the organism. Organicism, therefore, suggests that some, or all, complex wholes, whilst not perceived by people to be living entities, have the kind of systematic unity that is characteristic of what are literally living organisms.
An organism is said to differ from a mere mechanism or aggregate by reason of the interdependence of the nature and existence of its parts in the whole. For instance an arm is, or remains, a functional arm only if united to a living body. The organic analogy implies not only that the parts of the whole are unified by internal relations but that the whole has a characteristic life cycle or course of development, just as organisms typically do.
Wholism accepts that every wholon (organism) is a living entity. Every wholon receives life from the wholon that exist above it in the Wholarchy and of which it is a small part,and gives life to the wholons which exist below it in the Wholarchy and which form its parts.
Emergence is a doctrine which suggests that in hierarchically organised systems, which biological systems typically are, at some tier of the hierarchy, novelty, which is not obviously predictable or foreseeable in terms of anything that has preceded it, can appear. Consciousness for instance can be said to have emerged in the evolution of higher primates. Much earnest and confused thought surrounds the notion that Emergence is a kind of evolutionary stratagem which explains the appearance of novelty.
Wholism suggests that the doctrine of Emergence only appears to have some validity if it is accepted that creation occurs upwards from the less to the more complex. If it is accepted that creation occurs downwards from the more to the less complex, questions about the emergence of novelty do not arise.
Quantum Mechanics, which was developed in the 1920's, is a system of mechanics based on the wave-particle duality of radiation and matter. It must be used when describing systems so small that Newtonian or commonsense mechanics breaks down. The Radiation-Matter division harks back to the Mind-Body, or Spirit-Matter problem that lies at the base of all human questioning.
Now, whereas in classical physics the state of a system is specified certainly by precise simultaneous determination of all relevant dynamical variables, position, momentum, energy etc., the Uncertainty Principle asserts that this specification cannot be made for small scale systems. Thus at an atomic level complete Determinism is lost and in Quantum Mechanics, systems are specified by stating the probability of given values for position, momentum etc.
Indeterminism as it is understood by Quantum Mechanics has caused much controversy. Einstein for instance wrote "God does not play dice". Others have tried to construct theories in which hidden variables operate on a very fine scale in order to determine the precise moment when a given atom will radiate, or a nucleus decay. These theories are constructed in order to remove the apparent randomness, novelty, or freewill aspects from such non determined events. Despite the doubts about its conceptual foundations, Quantum Mechanics is supported by a great mass of experimental evidence and must be regarded as one of the greatest intellectual triumphs in all of physics.
Wholism explains the apparent freewill aspects of non determined atomic events by asserting that atoms are wholons which do indeed have a degree of freewill at their own level of the Wholarchy.
String Theory is Theoretical Physics' most recent attempt to resolve the difficulties experienced when attempting to integrate into one coherant system, Quantum Theory, which is the theory of the very small, and Classical Physics, which is the theory of the very large.
String Theory assumes that the basic unit of existence is not a particle, but an open or closed loop of energy known as a string. Strings, by vibrating in different manners, create all the known particles of matter. For internal consistancy the current theory requires the existence of 11 dimensions. These dimensions consist of the three spatial dimensions we are physically aware of, ie height, width, length and one time dimension; plus a further seven dimensions. These seven dimensions are apparently curled up and wrapped around and within the three spatial dimensions.
Wholism states that the most basic wholon, or unit of existence, is a wholon of manifested God Substance. This, as it manifests, unfolds its wholarchy, thus becoming atoms of the Elements Ether, Fire, Air, Water and Earth. The wholon's newly unfolded atom of Earth Element further unfolds and expresses as the three physical and one time dimension known by science as Space Time.
Evolutionary Theory is another of the major pillars supporting modern day science and its essence permeates society as a whole. The theory suggests that all the various types of animals and plants which currently exist have their origin in other pre-existing types. Their distinguishing differences being due to modifications that somehow occurred in successive generations of their ancestors.
Darwinism is a theory of the origin and perpetuation of new species of animals and plants which holds that organisms tend to produce offspring varying slightly from their parents. It states that the process of Natural Selection tends to favour the survival of those individuals whose peculiarities render them best adapted to their environment. Such individuals breed and so pass their characteristics on to their descendants. The theory supposes that chiefly by the continued operation of these factors new species not only have been and may still be produced, but that organisms of widely different groups may have arisen from common ancestors.
Neo-Darwinism claims that Natural Selection is the chief factor in the evolution of plants and animals and it specifically denies the possibility of inheriting acquired characteristics. Furthermore, it holds that tenable variations that are the subject of Natural Selection arise either spontaneously or not at all.
Lamarkism, however, states that the motive forces for evolutionary change are an animal's needs and the activities it undertakes in order to satisfy them. Such activities supposedly induce new or increased use of organs and parts resulting in adaptive modification or greater development. They similarly cause disuse and eventual atrophy of other parts. Furthermore, such changes are transmitted to offspring. Lamarkism, however, is completely at odds with the central dogma of Molecular Biology which holds that genetic information flows only towards protein or other products and never away from them. There is no known methods by which any modification brought about in a living organism during its own lifetime can be imprinted on the genetic mechanism. This contention is, however, currently under question.
No Proof of Evolutionary Theory
In general, however, the acceptance of evolutionary theory does not depend upon the evidence of a number of so called proofs. It depends rather upon the fact that the theory permeates and supports every branch of biological science, much as the notion of the roundness of the Earth underlies all geodesy and cosmological theories.
Wholism asserts that God continually momentarily re-creates the manifested universe based on the experience of the previous one. Whilst this appears to us to be evolution, it is an evolution that springs directly and continually from God. It is an evolution of the life cycle of creation and can be compared to the way that your life evolves through the life cycle of an human being. You do not evolve into something other than that which you are created.
Wholon is a word that has been derived from the word holon. Twenty-five years ago, the Hungarian author and philosopher Arthur Koestler proposed the word "holon" to describe a basic unit of organization in biological and social systems. Holon is a combination of the Greek word 'holos', meaning whole, and the suffix 'on' meaning particle or part.
Koestler observed that in living organisms and in social organizations, entirely self supporting non-interacting entities did not exist. Every identifiable unit of organization, such as a single cell in an animal or a family unit in a society, comprises more basic units (plasma and nucleus, parents and siblings) while at the same time forming a part of a larger unit of organization (a muscle tissue or a community).
A holon, as Koestler devised the term, is an identifiable part of a system that has a unique identity, yet is made up of sub-ordinate parts and in turn is part of a larger whole.
A wholon, as conceived by Wholism, is a quasi autonomous living whole built of smaller wholons and existing as a discreet entity, whilst also forming a functioning part of a larger wholon.
Wholism is a spiritual, philosophical and ecological lifestyle based on the concept that God is the Whole. God is everything that ever was, is, or will be. Nothing exists outside of God, or God would not be the Whole. Wholism teaches that you are a part of God but that God is the whole of you.
Wholism claims God continually momentarily re-creates the manifested universe by unfolding Its 'One Substance' as five phase shifted but quite distinct interpenetrating and interacting Universes.
These Universe further unfold into sub wholes within sub wholes. The sub wholes are known as wholons.
Wholons are quasi autonomous wholes existing as discreet entities whilst also forming an operating part of a larger wholon.
Wholons form an integrated hierarchical structure known as the Wholarchy.
Wholons unfold downwards into yet smaller wholons.
All wholons are conscious living entities.
Human beings are wholons. We experience the five unfolded Universe of Creation as consciousness, spirit, soul, mind, and body.
God is the Whole
Wholism's fundamental assertion is that God is the Whole and that you are a part of that Whole.
Now whilst it is true to say that the essential nature of the Whole is unknowable to us because a part can never encompass the reality of the Whole, we can, nevertheless use reason to inform us of certain things about the Whole.
Firstly, the Whole is defined as being the One Real Substance. It is everything that really is. It is both that which is manifested and that which is unmanifested. There is nothing outside of It or It would not be the Whole.
Secondly, the Whole is infinite in both its manifested and non manifested states because by definition there is nothing else which could define, bound, limit, or restrict It.
Thirdly, the Whole has always existed and must always continue to exist as there is nothing else which could have created It or which could destroy It. The Whole is eternal.
Fourthly, the Whole is everywhere. It must be continuous in space because there is nothing else to fill any gaps in It. It must be continuous outside of space because there is no place outside of It.
Fifthly, the Whole is infinite in power because there is nothing else to limit, restrict, or restrain It from action, or to cause It to take action. It is subject to no other power, because there is no other power.
Sixthly, the Whole in Its totality is unchangeable because there is nothing else to change It. It cannot be added to or subtracted from because It is the Whole.
Seventhly, the Whole is conscious because if any part of It is conscious, then all of It must be conscious since It is One Substance.